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Volume assessment

Decisions about fluid management require assessment of intravascular volume. Clinical parameters and physical examination can be inaccurate and misleading and bedside sonography can quickly provide important information that can improve this assessment. 


Basic overview

Lung ultrasound

Lung ultrasound scan zones

Focused cardiac ultrasound

Pleural effusions

Application of POCUS in undifferentiated hypotension: Part I



Arun Thomas, E.T. et al. Comparison between clinical judgment and integrated lung and inferior vena cava ultrasonography for dry weight estimation in hemodialysis patients. Hemodialysis International 23:494–503, 2019.

Loutradis, C. et al. The effect of dry-weight reduction guided by lung ultrasound on ambulatory blood pressure in hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial. Kidney International 95, 1505–1513, 2019.


Zoccali, C. et al. Pulmonary Congestion Predicts Cardiac Events and Mortality in ESRD. J Am Soc Nephrol 24: 639–646, 2013.

Kaptein, M.J. et al. Relationship of inferior vena cava collapsibility to ultrafiltration volume achieved in critically ill hemodialysis patients. International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease 11 195–209, 2018.

Ross, D.W. et al. Lung ultrasonography in end-stage renal disease: moving from evidence to practice—a narrative review. Clinical Kidney Journal 11:172–178, 2018.

Beaubien‑Souligny, W. et al. Quantifying systemic congestion with Point‑Of‑Care ultrasound: development of the venous excess ultrasound grading system. Ultrasound J 12:16, 2020.

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